Monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of the actions undertaken There is a framework of transparency that will not be intrusive or penalizing, but which must be used to build trust between the various actors. It also foresees that from 2023, the United Nations will present a report every five years (global report) on the implementation of the agreement and the progress made – the impact of climate contributions, mobilization of financial and technological resources, global temperature forecasts, etc. The three main objectives of the EU`s 7th Environment Action Programme (2014-2020) have an essential international dimension: the protection, conservation and improvement of the Union`s natural capital, the transformation of the Union into a low-carbon, environmentally friendly and competitive economy, and the protection of EU citizens from environmental constraints and risks to health and well-being. As part of this debate, important climate agreements have developed in the pursuit of emissions reductions. The Kyoto Protocol only required industrialized countries to reduce their emissions, while the Paris Agreement recognized that climate change was a common problem and called on all countries to set emission targets. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1992. The pioneering agreement [PDF] was ratified by 197 countries, including the United States, and was the first global treaty to explicitly address climate change. It has created an annual forum known as the Conference of the Parties (COP) for international discussions aimed at stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. These meetings produced the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement. Faced with considerable scientific uncertainties, policy makers are faced with the response to the risks associated with anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. These uncertainties about information that indicate that climate-related environmental changes cannot be rapidly, if ever, reversed due to the long time scales associated with the climate system. Decisions to be taken over the next few years may limit the range of policy options available in the future, as high short-term emissions would require greater reductions in the future to achieve a certain target concentration. Delaying measures could reduce the overall cost of mitigation due to possible technological advances, but would increase both the rate and ultimate magnitude of climate change, resulting in adaptation and damage costs (IPCC 1995).
Exchange of emissions reductions between countries and indication of the carbon price It contains provisions to leave the door open both to emissions trading and to progress in the development of carbon pricing systems. Under the title “Cooperative Approaches”, the possibility of an international transfer of mitigation results (international emissions exchange) and the creation of a mechanism for control and sustainable development are created. Many cities, businesses and organizations are considering reducing emissions, following the UNFCCC`s request to become climate neutral by the second half of the century.